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には and では

Jace *\(^o^)/*
Asked 7 years ago

In my daily reading, I sometimes see these combinations of particles used to identify the subect, such as 日本 には、 and アメリカ と 日本 では... How is the subject modified differently by using these particles then by using the standard は particle?

Know someone who might be able to answer this question?

1 Answer

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As you may know, the particles で and に are used to indicate a "location" where some action takes place.  When 日本 has only は, 日本 is just a subject. 

日本ちいさいくにです。Japan is a small country.


But, when you want to say some particular action is taken place in Japan, you use では.

日本では、はしをつかいます。In japan, (I) use chopsticks.

In this case, you can't say 日本は because the sentence will be as following,

日本、はしをつかいます。Japan uses chopsticks....!!

Interestingly, the combinations of で and は or に and は implicate that "Only in Japan, not in other countries".  Let's compare the senteces,

日本、くるまにのります。I drve a car in Japan.

日本では、くるまにのります。I drive a car in Japan (but I don't drive when I am in other countries.)

The second sentence does not clearly say that "I don't drive when I'm in other countries.". but people hear this think so.

 

OK, now I need to explain the difference between では and には.  The particle で is used to "indicate location of action".  On the other hand, the particle に is much more complicated.  But it often is used to indicate directions.

Here are some examples,

日本では、みんな日本語を話します。In Japan, everybody speaks Japanese. (sounds like it's not the case for other countries.)

日本には、行きません。 I don't go to Japan. (sounds like he/he is going to go to a different place.)


I can't explain well why, but it is good to remember that the verbs for exsitence いる and ある takes the particle に.

日本には、ライオンがいません。 There isn't any lions in Japan. (but, they're in other countries.)

日本には、大きな山がありません。 There isn't any big mountains in Japan. (but, there're big mountains in other countries)

 

I hope this helps.  I have a head ache today, so if you don't understand what I wrote, let me know!

Masako
Answered 7 years ago

I see. So, based on the context of what I've read, and what you've just taught me, には and では most closely translate to the English words "particularly", "exclusively", and "especially", dependent upon the context of the sentence. This definitely adds more depth to my reading comprehension. Thanks!

Jace *\(^o^)/*
Commented 7 years ago