"ga" and "wa"

Asked 4 years ago

Hello! I have a question on "ga", when should I use it and what’s the difference between "ga" and "wa". Thank you

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3 Answers


Hi jiji-san,

This is a very important question. Surely it's challenging for Japanese learners to use "wa" and "ga" properly.

Let me explain about the basic difference between "wa" and "ga" (when to use "wa" and "ga") here.


  • to set a topic  
    e.g. このおみせ、ケーキがおいしいです。(Talking about this shop, their cakes are delicious.)
  • to express *old information  (*something has already been mentioned or known by both a speaker and the listener)  
    e.g. このおみせ、にんきです。 (This shop is popular.)
  • to express contrast 
    e.g. わたしチョコレートケーキをかって、ともだちイチゴのケーキをかいました。
         (I bought a chocolate cake, while my friend bought a strawberry cake.)


  • to set a subject 
    e.g. このおみせは、ケーキおいしいです。
  • to express new information
    e.g. あたらしいおみせ、えきのちかくにあります。(There is a shop near the station.)
  • to identify someone / something
    e.g. わたしが、ケーキをかいます。(I'm the one who will buy cakes [you will not])
  • to be used with question words 
    e.g. だれいえにきますか? (Who is visiting my house?)
  • to be used in a subordinate clause 
    e.g. もしあなたくるなら、へやをそうじします。(If you come over, I will clean my room.)
Answered 4 years ago


hi J

wa is a topic particle, as in Anata  wa ... or,   Watashi wa...., and is spelled 

with the Hiragana 'ha' and is understood from usage to be pronounced wa 



Answered 4 years ago


Hi all, just a Japanese guy wandering around to find a place to reccomend friends. I thought perhaps I could make myself useful while at it, so here's my take on the subject. Enjoy!


ga = が

wa = は


このおみせはケーキおいしいです。 This shop has good cakes.

このおみせはケーキおいしいです。 Cakes are good in this shop. (Usually, が(ga) is used. If a Japanese guy/gal talks like this to you, you might want to avoid the other stuff...)


このおみせにんきです。 This shop is the popular one. (Amongst many you can see at the location, or perhaps among the competition.)

このおみせにんきです。 This shop is popular. (No other context.)


わたしチョコレートケーキをかって、ともだちイチゴのケーキをかいました。I bought the chocolate cake and my friend bought the strawberry cake. (Could be that the cakes are present at the conversation.)

わたしチョコレートケーキをかって、ともだちイチゴのケーキをかいました。I bought a chocolate cake and my friend bought a strawberry cake. (Just sayin.)


あたらしいおみせ、えきのちかくにあります。 There is a new shop near the station.

あたらしいおみせ、えきのちかくにあります。 The new shop is near the station. (Conversation in prior.)


わたし、ケーキをかいます。 I'll get the cake. (Possibly amongst the people involved and/or amongst the list of things to buy.)

わたし、ケーキをかいます。 I'll buy cake. (Just sayin.)


Wow, I never thought of it this way...

Answered 4 years ago